MAC, LINUX & UNIX SYSTEMS





The Macintosh which is also abbreviated as Mac(1997) is a series of personal computers which are designed, developed, and marketed by Apple Inc. Steve Jobs introduced the original Mac Pc on January 24, 1984. It was the first mass market personal computer featuring an integral graphical user interface and mouse.

The first model was later renamed as Macintosh 128k for it’s uniqueness among a populous family of subsequently updated models which are also now based on Apple's same proprietary architecture. From 1998, Apple has largely phased out the Macintosh name in favour of Mac, though the product family has been nicknamed "the Mac" since the development of the first model.

Linux was originally developed as a free operating system for personal computers based on the Intel x86 architecture, but has been ported to more computer hardware platforms than any other operating system. Thanks to its dominance on smartphones, Android, which is built on top of the Linux kernel, has the largest installed base of all general-purpose operating systems.

Linux, in its original form, is also the leading operating system on servers and other big iron systems such as mainframe computers and virtually all fastest super computers, but is used on only around 1.6% of desktop computers with Linux-based Chrome OS taking about 5% of the overall and nearly 20% of the sales. Linux also runs on embedded systems, which are devices whose operating system is typically built into the firmware and is highly tailored to the system; this includes smartphones and tablet computers running Android and other Linux derivatives, TiVo and similar DVR devices, network routers, facility automation controls, televisions, video game consoles, and smartwatches.

Unix which is trademarked as UNIX is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, developed in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research centre by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others. Initially intended for use inside the Bell System, AT&T licensed Unix to outside parties from the late 1970s, leading to a variety of both academic and commercial variants of Unix from vendors such as the University of California, Berkeley (BSD),Microsoft (Xenix), IBM (AIX) and Sun Microsystems (Solaris).

AT&T finally sold its rights in Unix to Novell in the early 1990s, which then sold its Unix business to the Santa Cruz Operation (SCO) in 1995, but the UNIX trademark passed to the industry standards consortium The Open Group, which allows the use of the mark for certified operating systems compliant with the Single UNIX Specification (SUS). Among these is Apple's OS X, which is the Unix version with the largest installed base as of 2014.